I belong to an international network called International POPs Elimination Network which has obtained small grants to fund research for its global CSO members. Their ambit widened to toxics which fall under the categories for all the UN conventions on Chemicals & Wastes, because of the recognized interlinkages among issues.
While for Pacific Islands the emphasis is on improving management of chemicals and wastes rather than technical expertise with regard to industrial byproduts, there are still not many Pacific CSOs who follow these multilateral environmental agreements.
I was happy with the emphasis during the Health Conference on research to gather data to support policy-making
First, there is the same issue mentioned by Dr Maoate in his keynote speech i.e. translating European terms into Cook Islands maori. I tend to characterize bad chemicals as vairaku kino, that is “bad medicine”. We have had advisory fact sheets about mercury translated into maori by former Parliamentary translator. We decided to coin the phrase “mecurio” for mercury because the periodic table of elements has not been translated.
The second point I would like to reinforce is the targeting specific populations with regard to interventions.
My third point is focus on minimizing risks to human health and environment from methlymercury
UN Environmental Program has an initiative called Strategic Approach to International chemicals Management (SAICM) which provides a forum for industry, academia, practitioners, government policymakers and negotiations; and civil society organisations or NGOs. Under SAICM, one of the current emphases is to engage the health sector in effective, safe management of chemicals and waste, starting at international level with WHO and working successively down through regional, subregional and national levels.
Brain damage resulting from methylmercury exposure in utero has similar social consequences to those characterized earlier in the Conference with regard to exposure to alcohol. So the key message is about reducing exposure to toxics that will have lifelong impacts on a person’s life.
The United States Geological Service or USGS carried out a ground-breaking study in 2009. The aim was to find the origins of methylmercury in the North Pacific Ocean, and how it gets into fish.
It was estimated that 75% of human exposure to mercury globally was from fish or shellfish, but nobody knew how it got there. It was further estimated that about 40% of U.S. exposure was from Pacific fish, but there were no research results available.
In 2009, the USGS published its findings in a report entitled “Mercury Sources, Distribution & Bioavailability in the North Pacific Ocean: Insights from Data & Models”. The complex methylation process was explained
US Environmental Protection Authority (US EPA) commented that one unexpected finding was the significance of long-range transport by large ocean circulation currents from the west to the east. Typically it was though that emissions were due to land-based combustion activity but this particular study concluded that emissions originated near Asia.
Some sceptics dispute this; and others have commented that radionucleoide technology can be used to determine from which continent the combustion source originated.
An important point for the Cook Islands is that “global deposition” explains why islands so far from the continents should be affected when there are no nearby sources such industrial processes or coal-based power stations.
In Europe, PRTRs (“pollutant release and transfer registers”) were set up to monitor pollutant releases under a regional convention called the Aarhus Convention. Air quality monitoring is also carried outin the Arctic. Perhaps the Pacific region could do with a similar monitoring system.